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Chief executive Steve Ballmer described the iPad challenger -- complete with ultra thin covers-cum-keyboards in a range of colours -- as a tablet that "works and plays" as he presented it at a press event in Los Angeles on Monday.
Surface is also the name of table and poster-sized touch screen computers that Microsoft has pitched to the business market for use in restaurants, shops, bars and other venues.
There were spontaneous bursts of applause and whoops from tech journalists and bloggers -- gathered in a Hollywood design studio -- as key features of the new tablet -- including the keyboard-cum-case, and the built-in stand.
There was also one nerve-jangling moment for Steven Sinofsky, president of Windows and Windows Live Division, when the first Surface model he was demonstrating failed to respond to a touch command.
He excused himself and raced back a few steps to reach for a replacement, which to his barely-concealed relief worked properly.
A version of Surface running on Windows RT software tailored for ARM mobile device chips measured 9.3 millimetres thick and weighed 676 grams.
It boasted a 26.9 centimetre high-definition screen and will be available with 32 or 64 gigabytes of memory, according to Microsoft.
A tablet model powered by Windows 8 Pro software measured 13.5 millimetres thick, weighs 903 grams and will be available with 64 or 128 gigabytes of memory.
"It's a whole new community of computing devices from Microsoft," Ballmer said. "It embodies the notion of hardware and software really pushing each other".
Surface featured a flip-out rear "kickstand" to prop it up like a picture frame and a cover that, when opened, acts as a keypad so tablets could be switched into "desktop" mode for work tasks.
Microsoft did not specify when the tablet would be available but it is likely to be timed with the release of Windows 8 software later this year.
"This product marks a crucial pivot in Microsoft's product strategy," said Forrester analyst Sarah Rotman Epps.
"It puts the focus on the consumer rather than the enterprise," she continued in a blog post. "And it lets Microsoft compete with vertically-integrated Apple on more even ground."
Microsoft could be "its own worst enemy" in the tablet market if it overwhelms people with gadget options and specs such as chipsets instead of following Apple's lead and keeping choices simple, the analyst warned.
"Consumers aren't used to thinking about chipsets," Rotman Epps said.
"Choice is a key tenet of Windows, but too much choice is overwhelming for consumers," she continued. "Apple gets this, and limits iPad options to connectivity, storage, and black or white."
Microsoft, which built its fortune by specialising in software and leaving the job of making computers or other devices to partners, has had mixed results from its hardware ventures.