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Water Treatment In The Haemodialysis & Medical Markets

Supplier: Culligan Australia
18 December, 2008

A person in need of dialysis has his or her blood in dose contact with huge amounts of water (about 150 titres a session), three times a week

Haemodialysis sector

While on one hand specialists are placing more emphasis on the importance of water purity for the patient well-being, on the other we are seeing a gradual worsening in the water quality supplied by city waterworks to hospitals.The answer to this state of affairs can be expressed in one word: safety.

The equipment illustrated here sum up the Culligan philosophy in terms of quality and safety. As for water quality, Culligan equipment is designed to produce the highest possible standards. As for safety, Culligan equipment is designed and manufactured to overcome even the most remote risk of breakdown or malfunction, in any possible condition.

Culligan automatic Biosmosis equipment, completed by the necessary pre-treatment, monitoring and distribution systems, are the result of Culligan's thirty years of experience in the haemodialysis sector, where Culligan trademark is synonymous with state of the art technology and reliability. They are certified as "Medical Devices" by the Italian Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Notified Body No. 0373.


The SDS (Single Dialysis System) is a state of the art water treatment system, intended for dialysis in the home, emergency services, dialysis in acute cases and for transplant patients. The SDS can deliver up to 80 I/h water production. Compact and elegant, the equipment is on wheels for easier mobility. The SDS consists basically of a Reverse Osmosis water treatment system, with a compound filter pre-treatment section providing filtration and dechlorination.

The main feature of this equipment is its extreme user-friendliness, thanks to a touch-control electronic panel governing all functions.

The SDS is equipped with:

  • initial and final flushing device
  • automatic disinfection
  • audio and visual alarms
  • continuous monitoring of the treated water quality
  • main water circuit components in stainless steel
  • touch-control keypad at 24 Volts
  • digital conductivity meter for quality check.

The SDS is complete with break-tank and all devices necessary to bring it into line with the strictest international standards.


This equipment is the result of Culligan's several decades of experience in the haemodialysis sector.

Its exceptional operating simplicity, strength and flexibility allow it to be adapted for the most widely varying installations.

All the MFP's electrical components are enclosed in an airtight casing, and the construction materials, particularly those in contact with water, are resistant to corrosion and do not shed.

The noiseless three-phase motor (IP 54) meets the toughest safety requirements. The MFP is prefitted for easy connection to an external module disinfecting system.

R.O series equipment have been designed in specific response to the needs of the haemodialysis sector. They consist of two separate reverse osmosis sections, normally operating in series to produce high quality and purity water.

In emergencies each section is able to operate alternately as single stage. Operation in series will produce the highest quality water, since each water molecule undergoes two consecutive osmosis passes. In the first pass it will lose 90-99% of the salts, and in the

second pass lose an additional 90-99% of its residual salinity, besides microbic bacteria removal.

The microbiological purity of water treated with Biosmosis is very high, with no microbiological contamination at all.

In practice, this quality level is similar to that required for injectable water in the pharmaceutical market.

Biosmosis equipment fit an automatic device which, in case of failure of one stage, permits the end of dialysis session without any inconvenience for the patients.

The prefitted for easy connection to an external flushing system for modules disinfection

Dual. Box

Hospital conditions often make a system design which cuts the time and space required for installation a necessity. The Culligan DUAL BOX is the simple, logical answer to this problem: two different satin-finish steel boxes house the pre-treatment and Biosmosis systems, completely preassembled and with all hydraulic and electrical connections already made. This means the equipment is immediately operational, from the moment of delivery; the user has only to make the inlet, outlet and water drain connections and connect the system to the electrical mains. The box housing the Biosmosis equipment also contains an electrical panel with PLC for complete control of the system. The boxes have locks to prevent tampering by unauthorised staff.


Reverse Osmosis plants require sanitisation to prevent the proliferation of microorganisms (bacteria, algae, fungi, etc.) and to guarantee the pure water supply to the point of use.

Culligan offers a range of automatic and semiautomatic solutions to allow this operation to take place with the maximum effectiveness and safety:

  • chemical disinfection - using sanitising solutions based on Peracetic Acid, aldehydes or other specific products. Can be performed on all types of distribution circuits;
  • thermal disinfection - with steam or superheated water. It is possible with circuits in PVDF HP BCF or in AISI 316 L stainless steel or in PEX,and also with osmotic membranes for suitable equipment.

Distribution systems

A well designed, correctly constructed distribution system is essential for maintaining the water quality characteristics. Greatest care must be taken to avoid formation of dead zones where the water may stagnate and allow bacteria to proliferate. High water flow rate must be kept in the entire circuit to avoid deposit formation.

It is also advisable - and in many countries compulsory -

to provide a flow break system which eliminates even the most remote risk that water used for medical purposes may return to the urban mains.

Culligan designs and constructs systems for water distribution to kidney machines in various materials, in accordance to engineering and economic decisions and the chosen sanitisation technique.


Inert and absolutely shedding-proof, this is certainly the most innovative material. It is assembled by poly- welding, a technique which does not add any other material. It can be sanitised chemically or by heat, using superheated water or steam (temperatures up to 140 °C).AISI 316 L stainless steel

Can be sanitised chemically or by heat, using superheated water or steam. The automatic welds are made in an inert gas atmosphere, while manual welds (limited to those strictly necessary) are of orbital T.I.G. type.


Can be sanitised chemically or by heat, using superheated water at 95 °C; it is easy to install. The feeding valves are in AISI 316 L stainless steel.

Non toxic u-PVC

This is the most widely used material, because of its low cost and because it is easy to use. It is assembled and glued using solvents. Can only be sanitised chemically.


The system produces water at 95 °C for the sanitisation of the distribution loop and/or the osmotic membranes of suitable equipment. It includes one control panel, the automatic valves for draining and filling, stainless steel heater and temperature control. Fully assembled on stainless steel skid, it can be connected to the general control panel.


A Culligan exclusive dedicated PLC controls all functions related to the water treatment plant, including night recirculation, hot water(or steam) sanitisation, chemical disinfection and all safety devices.

Alarm transmission to remote unit or by means of phone signal in the suitable equipment.


The artificial kidney drain (on the left) is designed to prevent any flow back.

The PVDF feeding hose (on the right) can be hot sanitised along with the distribution network.

Analysis sector

In the analysis sector, water must meet two fundamental requirements: purity and constant quality. PHARMA compact system, for the modern auto-analyzer devices, and mixed bed demineralisers, for normal laboratory uses, combine excellent results, easy to use and handle.


PHARMA is a device for ultrapure water production, designed to meet analysis laboratories needs. Its safety, compact size, portability and low noise make it the ideal equipment for this sensitive application.

It is easy to connect to a variety of users: auto-analyzers, processing machines or water taps.

The treatment phases PHARMA provides are basically pre-filtration, desalination on R.O. membranes, demineralisation on disposable mixed bed resins canister.Cost and bother for resin regeneration are avoided. A quality indicator [or a conductivity meter, depending on models) provides a continuous reading of the treated water quality, which is of the order of 0.2 pS-cm [5 MOhm).


Designed with user-friendliness as top priority, this mixed bed demineraliser contains a disposable cartridge filled with high exchange capacity resins.

When exhausted, the cartridge is replaced in an operation that takes just few minutes. A warning light which signals when the resins are exhausted is available on request. The REFILL LINE is available in various capacities.



Mixed bed demineralisers with steel container, protected on the inside by a liner and on the outside by a plastic cladding, complete with two hoses for connection to the system. A warning light signals when the resins are exhausted.


Ideal for the very smallest usage, these mixed bed demineralisers have fiberglass containers, suitable for pressurized water distribution.

Once the demineralisers have lost their exchange capacity, the Culligan After-sales Service will replace the container and regenerate the resins at the nearest regeneration centre.

Hundreds of water treatment units for haemodialysis, installed in Europe, Mediterranean Basin and Middle East