How to choose the right gasket

Supplier: Klinger Limited
21 February, 2013

This guide is included here to provide practical advice and recommendations on achieving optimum performance from asbestos free gaskets.

Correct gasket choice is an important step in the design of a process system as choosing the correct gasket from the beginning can result in significant savings due to longer gasket life, reduced gasket failure and lower leak rates.

Other Considerations
Limitations in steam

Steam duty is perhaps the most common and one of the most arduous gasket applications. It is difficult in part because

  1. Steam is a powerful hydrolyser capable of changing the nature of many polymers and fibres.
  2. An increase in the pressure of saturated steam results in a corresponding increase in temperature. Gaskets under increased stress (ie higher internal pressure) in general require a reduced operation temperature.
  3. Many materials harden in steam leading, in some cases, to embrittlement. This is especially applicable to asbestos free calendered materials.

When discussing temperature limits in steam only approximate guide-lines can be given due to considerations such as

  • Flange design (ie spigot and recess is far better than raised face)
  • Gasket thickness (thinner gaskets perform better)
  • Required service life
  • Assembly techniques
  • Maintenance procedures
  • Degree of acceptable embrittlement
  • The use of jointing compounds in an assembly

Bearing these factors in mind we suggest that very careful consideration be given to the above parameters, especially where operation is near the borderline of the PT diagrams available on this website. If in doubt contact Klinger ([email protected]) for technical advice.

Low Temperature Duty

The following conditions need to be met before determining suitability of materials at low temperatures.

  • The gasket is completely dry when installed
  • The flange is assembled at ambient temperature
  • The flange and bolt materials are suitable for low temperature use

If these conditions can be met the following minimum operating temperatures apply

Natural Rubber
Neoprene Rubber
Nitrile Rubber
Viton Rubber
PTFE envelope gaskets
Klingersil C4500
Klingersil C4430
Spiral Wound gaskets

Gasket Size
A general rule is that gaskets cut from a sheet (eg Klingersil, Top-chem, etc) can be successfully used at smaller diameters, lower pressures and/or lower temperatures. As diameter, temperature or pressure increase the use of semi-metallic gaskets are more common. This is largely due to the effect of hydrostatic end thrust in reducing stress on the gasket and increasing the chance of a blow-out.

As a general rule, special care should be taken for gaskets above 600mm diameter, or operating above 200°C or 50 bar. 

This guide is supplied as an initial reference only, and many of the theories behind the recommendations are not discussed in detail.